Director Eddie Rosenstein's documentary Freedom to Marry chronicles the history of the same-sex marriage movement and profiles prime strategists Evan Wolfson and Mary Banauto, among other leaders. Beginning with one hundred two days before the Supreme Court arguments and counting down as that crucial day approaches, the film jumps back to 1986 to explain the changes over thirty-two years.

Though small steps forward were sometimes met with reactionary backlash, those for legalization persevered with an understanding of the ways universal values, notably love and marriage, move people to change in important ways. The personal is political and respectful dialogue triumphs. Along the way, the political decisions offer a road map of the evolution of this, and potentially many other, social issues.  

Opponents speak and argue, news clips register changes over time and from state to state, individuals express their perspectives, and the joy of the same-sex couples comes through powerfully and movingly. So do Wolfson's mother Joan and his father Jerry, as they describe Evan's commitment to fairness. The documentary doesn't break new ground for those of us who have followed events from Hawaii in 1990 to the first 2004 legal marriage to Supreme Court argument day, August 28, 2015. It does select well from the myriad of issues, including the need for legal marriages in one state to be recognized in states denying legality.    

Rosenstein moves the 86-minute film along efficiently with plaintiffs in the Supreme Court case and those opposed presenting arguments in candid as well as public arenas. Even knowing the Court's ruling, suspense builds since the principals didn't know and register their anxiety along with their determination. The decision not to use a voiceover narrator works well here since the advocates are articulate as well as passionate.  

Freedom to Marry screens at Webster University's Winifred Moore auditorium Saturday, April 15 and Sunday, April 16, at 7:30 each evening.


In Frantz, set in the German village of Quedlinburg, 1919, the local population remains devastated by WWI. Many families have lost sons, including Magda and Hans Hoffmeister who grieve for their only son Frantz, killed in France. His fiancé Anna, with no family of her own, lives with the Hoffmeisters and places flowers on Frantz's grave daily.  

Anna notices 24-year-old Frenchman Adrien also visits the cemetery regularly. Soon Adrien becomes an integral part of Anna's and the Hoffmeisters' lives. He recounts his friendship with Frantz, their visits to the Louvre, to see one Manet painting in particular, and their enjoyment of playing the violin. He begins to help restore life, though many German townspeople express overt hostility to him and all things French. 

Adrien and Frantz are explicitly depicted as mirror images of each other, literally in one scene and in the details of their lives. To reveal more would spoil a complex, richly layered interrogation of guilt, lies, forgiveness and love. However, significantly, within the slowly revealed, engrossing relationships are profound parallels to today's milieu. French director/screenplay writer François Ozon is quoted in press notes saying, "Caught up in the turmoil of the aftermath of World War I -- a frightening period of rising nationalism, populist and extreme right parties full of hatred and fear of 'foreigners' -- I was indirectly alluding to today. . . Without being fully aware of it, my film became political." 

Enhancing Frantz's aesthetic appeal, Ozon shot on film, not digitally, in beautiful black and white, though he segues to color in eight scenes, primarily those depicting intense emotional connections, especially with Frantz. These come to light through flashbacks interwoven throughout the film, infusing the past quite palpably into the present with allusions to painters Caspar David Friedrich and Egon Schiele and period music invoking Mahler and Debussy.

Inspired by Ernst Lubitsch's 1932 film Broken Lullaby, itself based on Maurice Rostand's play written shortly after WWI, Ozon adds a totally new last act. He's says, "I was more interested in the lie than the guilt." But above all Frantz is a film about reclaiming life. In German and French with English subtitles. At Landmark's Plaza Frontenac Theatre.


Friday, March 31 through Sunday, April 2, Washington University's African Film Festival offers four programs, including three feature films each preceded by short fiction works. From Nigeria to South Africa, Niger to Ghana, the selections testify to thematic diversity in contemporary African film and to technical expertise, including terrific music and superb compositions. 

Friday at 7:00 p.m. the festival begins with Maman(s), that is, Mothers. Told entirely from eight-year-old Aida's point of view, her father returns to Paris from Senegal with an unwelcome second wife causing a stir. This short is followed by 76, set in southwest Nigeria. Told in flashback, inspired by true events, the story dramatizes the impact of the aborted military coup and assassination of Nigeria's Head of State. Dire consequences result from misunderstandings in the interlocking relationships of soldiers, their wives and lovers. All the women actors' performances strike exactly the right note communicating the complexity of this community and the importance of women in it, bringing this historical event to vivid life.

Saturday afternoon's program at 3:00, "Eye on Youth," includes three short films, two of them animated. The program includes a Q&A with animator Abdul Nadi and a workshop on cartooning and animation. 

Saturday's 7:00 p.m. program begins with the amusing short Destino. Cinematographer Mehdi and his Speed Movie business partner Loïc contract to film Arab weddings. Nothing goes as planned when they arrive at Leila's, Medhi's ex-girlfriend, in what turns out to be a farcical family ritual catapulted into turmoil. Details enhance the humor, from Speed Movie's audiovisual laboratory van to the bride's and groom's reaction shots. 

Next, the feature Children of the Mountain is an emotional, poignant tale focusing on Essuman who gives birth to Nuku, a boy with a cleft palate. Being blamed for Nuku's physical deformity and blaming herself, Essuman seeks useless solutions through criminals and unlicensed healers before realizing she is not at fault in this initially heartbreaking and then heartwarming personal story. Rukiyat Masud, who plays Essuman, gives a mesmerizing performance anchoring a story that moves skillfully from distress to acceptance. Writer/director Priscilla Anany will introduce the film and lead a discussion after the screening.

Sunday Le Retour/The Return watches as Willy is jolted by his brother Théo's revelation of unexpected homosexual preference. And the festival concludes on a joyous musical note with Akounak Tedalat Tah Tazoughai/Rain the Color Blue with a Little Red in It. Real life, expert guitarist Mdou Moctar enters a guitar competition in this first Niger narrative feature in the Tuareg language. Peppered with entertaining musical interludes and a clear homage to Prince, the story also includes subplots involving father-son conflict, stealing music and songs, and debate about the negative reputation of musicians. It offers a fitting, upbeat end to the festival.

All films have English subtitles as needed and screen Friday, March 31 through Sunday, April 2 at WashU's Brown Hall, Room 100. You may visit for more information or call 314-935-7879. 



Each Wednesday in April at 7:00 p.m. Landmark's Tivoli Theatre celebrates film noir classics. The four selections are: John Huston's The Maltese Falcon, Billy Wilder's Double Indemnity and his Sunset Boulevard, and Delmar Daves' Dark Passage. These magnificent works showcase superb writing, fascinating characters and the studio system's great actors from the stars through every supporting role.

The month kicks off April 5 with The Maltese Falcon (1941), based on Dashiell Hammett's novel with a screenplay by director John Huston. The clever, wily private detective Sam Spade (Humphrey Bogart) must, as he says, investigate the murder of his business partner Miles Archer. The intrigue will involve the duplicitous Brigid O'Shaughnessy (Mary Astor) and the equally treacherous Kasper Gutman (Sydney Greenstreet), Wilmer Cook (Elisha Cook Jr.), and Joel Cairo (Peter Lorre.) Shot by Arthur Edeson, every scene offers a master class in lighting and composition.

The second Wednesday, April 12, Double Indemnity (1944) features Fred MacMurray, Barbara Stanwyck, and Edward G. Robinson in a delectable cat and mouse game. It boasts a brilliant screenplay by Raymond Chandler and director Billy Wilder, based on James M. Cain's novel. When Phyllis Dietrichson casts her spell on insurance agent Walter Neff, the plot to kill her husband and take the money is questioned by a suspicious insurance claims investigator. 

The third week, April 19, celebrating its 70th anniversary, Dark Passage unites Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall in an investigation into the erroneous conviction of Vincent Parry (Bogart). It weaves its way through a complicated plot of coincidences and plastic surgery, blackmail, murders, and suicide. Its initial first person point-of-view doesn't sit well but it settles in to an interesting innocent/convicted man scenario.

The last Wednesday in April, the 26th, 1950s Sunset Boulevard unleashes Gloria Swanson, William Holden, and Erich von Stroheim in an iconic drama about motion pictures and the demise of Hollywood. Narrated from the first shot by a dead Joe Gilles (Holden), it leads with grim humor. As silent film star Norma Desmond observes, "I AM big. It's the 'pictures' that got small." And these film noir classics offer solid proof of that.

To see these gorgeous films on the big screen is a rare treat. Each show is Wednesdays at 7:00 p.m. at Landmark's Tivoli Theatre.


In Paris, Maureen is a "Personal Shopper," as the film's title announces. She works for a disagreeable, wealthy celebrity client, but in fact she's waiting for some unknown sign from Lewis, her twin brother, known as a medium. Lewis died three months ago from a heart malformation that, quite symbolically, Maureen also exhibits.

Without revealing any essential information, as events develop Maureen will both look for, puzzle over, and distrust possible contact from Lewis. During her exploration, Maureen receives strings of text messages from a mysterious and potentially threatening source, clashes with her employer and deliberately breaks some of their agreements. At the home they shared, Maureen will show sympathy to Lara, Lewis' former girlfriend, as inexplicable incidents intensify.

As Kristen Stewart, who plays Maureen, states in press notes, "The film also asks what, in my opinion, is the most terrifying question in life; 'Am I completely alone, or can I truly enter into contact with someone else?'" This extends to other people in the room for Maureen, not just the other world. Maureen is alone in many scenes and feels isolated even when she's in the company of others. She is assuredly a personal shopper who is trying on others' clothes in a search for herself, adrift since Lewis' death. Her world has been fractured, and the narrative reflects this disjointed and unsettling theme. In today's world, it's easy to identify with a fragmented life, and the film makes no effort to unify events. As Maureen rushes about Paris on her motor scooter, travels to London on a fast train, or even wanders through large homes or apartments, she hurries but seems never to arrive.    

Writer/director Olivier Assayas demonstrated his ability to elicit a nuanced performance from Kristen Stewart in Clouds of Sils Maria. He again teases out her range of emotions, though she remains occasionally too emotionally and physically stiff when it does and doesn't fit the character. Nevertheless, Personal Shopper makes a powerful statement that, as Stewart says about Maureen, "We're all in our own world, completely absorbed . . . without ever experiencing even the slightest pleasure." It's a film capturing our time. Assayas won the Best Director at the Cannes Film Festival for Personal Shopper. Primarily in English with some French with English subtitles. At Landmark's Plaza Frontenac Theatre.

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